Kenapa Tanggal 29 Februari Cuma Ada Tiap 4 Tahun Sekali? Ini Sejarahnya

Sekitarjambi.com – Jambi, Jika kamu memperhatikan tanggal, terutama di bulan Februari, tanggal 29 hanya dijumpai 4 tahun sekali saja. Bagi kamu yang lahir pada tanggal 29 Februari, bersyukurlah, karena kamu masuk dalam kategori orang-orang “elit”.

Bagaimana tidak, orang-orang yang lahir pada tanggal 29 Februari akan memperingati hari ulang tahunnya setiap empat tahun sekali. Disebut dengan “Leapling”, orang yang lahir pada Hari Kabisat hanya ada sekitar 5 juta orang di seluruh dunia. Kemungkinan orang yang dilahirkan pada tanggal ini ada pada 1 dari 1461 kelahiran.

Beberapa orang terkenal diketahui lahir pada 29 Februari yaitu penyanyi legendaris Amerika Serikat, Dinah Shore (lahir 1916), artis hip-hop Ja Rule (lahir 1976), aktor film The Godfather Alex Rocco (lahir 1936), dan pemain Liga Inggris Darren Ambrose (lahir 1984). Di Indonesia sendiri kita mengenai sastrawan legendaris NH Dini (1936) dan artis cilik Dea Imut (lahir 1996).

Mungkin itu sebabnya Dhea Annisa (nama asli Dea Imut) dijuluki “Imut” karena hanya merayakan ulang tahun sebanyak 4 tahun sekali. Pada tanggal 29 Februari 2020, Dea Imut sudah berumur 24 tahun. Namun ia hanya merayakan ulang tahun sebanyak 6 kali saja dalam hidupnya.

Kalimat sebelumnya bernada bercanda, sehingga kali ini kita akan membahas lebih serius mengenai “sejarah Tahun Kabisat” yang membuat tanggal 29 Februari hanya ada satu dalam waktu 4 tahun sekali.
Dikutip dari Wikipedia bersumber pada buku berjudul “Astronomical Algorithims”, dalam satu tahun, tidak secara persis terdiri dari 365 hari melainkan 365 hari 5 jam 48 menit 45,1814 detik. Jika ini tidak dihiraukan, maka setiap empat tahun sekali kita akan kekurangan hampir 1 hari (tepatnya 23 jam 15 menit 0,7256 detik). Maka untuk mengkompensasi hal ini, setiap 4 tahun sekali (tahun yang bisa dibagi 4), diberi 1 hari ekstra, atau yaitu pada tanggal 29 Februari.

Tahun 2020 merupakan Tahun Kabisat karena angkanya habis dibagi 4, sehingga ada tanggal 29 di bulan Februari ini. Tahun Kabisat menurut definisi di atas mulai ada sejak diluncurkannya kalender Gregorian (1582).
Sejarah Tahun Kabisat atau dikenal sebagai Leap Day, lahir berawal dari kekesalan Julius Caesar. Ia merasa bahwa penanggalan saat itu tidak menunjukkan musim yang tepat. Petinggi Romawi itu dikenal sebagai “Father of Leap Year” atau “Bapak Tahun Kabisat” karena ia berada di belakang pencetusan kabisat pada 45 SM.

Awalnya, bangsa Romawi memiliki kalender 355 hari. Untuk menjaga agar festival tetap berlangsung sekitar musim yang sama setiap tahun, 22 atau 23 hari dibuat setiap satu atau dua bulan pada tahun kedua. Selama masa hidupnya di Mesir, Julius Caesar mengakui keunggulan pada penanggalan yang ada di sana.

Penanggalan setahun menampilkan 365 hari dan bulan selingan sesekali yang dimasukkan ketika para astronom mengamati kondisi tertentu di bintang-bintang. Melansir dari History.com, Julius Caesar memutuskan untuk menyederhanakan hal-hal di atas dan menambahkan hari ke bulan yang berbeda dalam setahun untuk membuat kalender 365 hari.

Perhitungan sebenarnya dibuat oleh filsuf sekaligus astronom Romawi kuno bernama Sosigenes. Setiap tahun keempat setelah hari ke 28 Februarius (29 Februari) satu hari ditambahkan, menjadikan setiap tahun keempat tahun kabisat.
Pada tahun 1582, Paus Gregorius XIII semakin menyempurnakan kalender dengan aturan bahwa hari kabisat akan terjadi pada tahun mana saja yang dapat dibagi dengan 4 seperti dijelaskan di atas.
Itulah tadi sejarah dan alasan harus adanya tanggal 29 Februari setiap 4 tahun sekali, apakah kamu juga lahir di tanggal 29 Februari? (hitekno.com)

Bagikan

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