Umat Islam Tak Salat Jumat 3 Kali Saat Pandemi Corona, Apa Tergolong Kafir? – Jakarta, Di tengah pandemi virus corona di Indonesia, kegiatan keagamaan dibatasi demi mencegah penularan. Termasuk salah satunya salat Jumat bagi umat Islam.

Namun pertanyaan muncul. Dalam ajaran Islam ada pendapat, tanpa uzur (alasan) kuat, apabila umat Islam khususnya yang laki-laki, maka ia tergolong kafir.

Lalu, bagaimana dengan situasi pandemi corona seperti saat ini?

Berikut penjelasan lengkap dari MUI melalui Komisi Fatwa:

Tidak Salat Jumat Tiga Kali, Bagaimana Hukumnya

Banyak pertanyaan mengenai hukum tidak salat Jumat selama tiga kali berturut-turut, mengingat ada hadis yang menyatakan kalau tidak salat Jumat selama tiga kali berturut-turut dihukumi kafir. MUI telah mengeluarkan fatwa bahwa seseorang yang berada di kawasan yang potensi penularannya tinggi atau sangat tinggi, salat Jumat bisa diganti dengan salat Zuhur di rumah. Sementara, warga DKI dan sekitarnya, setelah kasus pandemi COVID-19 sudah tidak salat selama dua kali, dan tiga kali jika besok tetap tidak salat Jumat. Bagaimana hukumnya jika tidak salat Jumat 3 kali berturut-turut?

Menanggapi masalah ini perlu disampaikan hal sbb:

1. Ada tiga jenis orang yang tidak melaksanakan salat Jumat.

a. Pertama, orang yang tidak salat Jumat karena inkar akan kewajiban Jumat, maka dia dihukumi sebagai kafir.

b. Kedua, orang Islam yang tidak salat Jumat karena malas. Dia meyakini kewajiban Jumat tapi dia tidak salat Jumat karena kemalasan dan tanpa adanya uzur syar’i, maka dia berdosa, atau ‘ashin. Melakukan maksiat. Jika tidak Jumatan tiga kali berturut tanpa uzur maka Allah mengunci mati hatinya.

c. Ketiga adalah orang Islam yang tidak Jumatan karena ada uzur syar’i, maka ini dibolehkan.

Menurut pandangan para ulama fikih, uzur syar’i tidak salat Jumat antara lain sakit. Ketika sakitnya lebih dari 3 kali Jumat, dia tidak salat Jumat tiga kali berturut-turut pun tidak berdosa.

Uzur syar’i berikutnya adalah kekhawatiran terjadinya sakit. Nah, dalam kondisi ketika berkumpul dan berkerumun itu diduga kuat akan terkena wabah atau menularkan penyakit, maka ini menjadi uzur untuk tidak Jumatan (salat Jumat).

Ada beberapa udzur syar’i lain yang dibolehkan meninggalkan salat Jumat, di antaranya hujan deras yang menghalangi menuju masjid, juga karena adanya kekhawatiran akan keselamatan diri, keluarga, atau hartanya.

2. Hingga kini, wabah COVID-19 masih belum bisa dikendalikan dan diatasi. Potensi penularan dan penyebarannya masih tinggi. Dengan demikian, uzur syar’i yang menyebabkan tidak dilaksanakannya perkumpulan untuk ibadah seperti shalat Jumat masih ada.

Dalam kitab Asna al-Mathalib disebutkan:

وَقَدْ نَقَلَ الْقَاضِي عِيَاضٌ عَن الْعُلَمَاءِ أَنَّ الْمَجْذُومَ وَالْأَبْرَصَ يُمْنَعَانِ مِنْ الْمَسْجِدِ وَمِنْ صَلَاةِ الْجُمُعَةِ، وَمِنْ اخْتِلَاطِهِمَا بِالنَّاسِ

Al-Qadli ‘Iyadl menukil pandangan para ulama bahwa orang yang terjangkit wabah lepra dan penyakit menular lainnya dicegah untuk ke masjid dan salat Jumat, juga bercampur dengan orang-orang (yang sehat).

Ada juga dalam kitab al-Inshaf yang menyebutkan:

وَيُعْذَرُ فِي تَرْكِ الْجُمُعَةِ وَالْجَمَاعَةِ الْمَرِيضُ بِلَا نِزَاعٍ، وَيُعْذَرُ أَيْضًا فِي تَرْكِهِمَا لِخَوْفِ حُدُوثِ الْمَرَض

“Uzur yang dibolehkan meninggalkan salat Jumat dan jemaah adalah orang yang sakit tanpa ada perbedaan di kalangan ulama. Termasuk uzur juga yang dibolehkan meninggalkan salat Jumat dan jemaah adalah karena takut terkena penyakit”.

Dua kondisi di atas menjadi uzur untuk tidak Jumatan. Orang yang sakit, khawatir akan sakitnya dan khawatir menularkan penyakit ke orang lain, serta orang yang khawatir tertular penyakit. Selama masih ada uzur, maka dia masih tetap boleh tidak Jumatan. Dan baginya tidak dosa. Kewajibannya adalah mengganti dengan salat Zuhur.

3. Terkait hadis soal meninggalkan salat Jumat 3 kali berturut-turut dikategorikan kafir, adalah yang meninggalkannya tanpa uzur, sebagaimana riwayat

من ترك ثلاث جمع متواليات من غير عذر طبع الله على قلبه

“Siapa yang meninggalkan salat Jumat sebanyak tiga kali berturut-turut tanpa uzur, maka Allah akan tutup hatinya.”

Atau dalam redaksi hadis yang lain, meninggalkan Jumat dengan menggampangkan atau meremehkannya, sebagaimana sabdanya:

مَنْ تَرَكَ ثَلَاثَ جُمَعٍ تَهَاوُنًا بِهَا طَبَعَ اللَّهُ عَلَى قَلْبِهِ

“Barang siapa yang meninggalkan salat Jumat sebanyak tiga kali dengan meremehkannya, maka Allah tutup hatinya.”

Wassalamu alaikum wr. Wb

Asrorun Niam Sholeh

Sekretaris Komisi Fatwa MUI. (Kumparan)


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