Viral Gerhana Matahari, Ini Segala Hal yang Patut Diketahui

sekitarjambi.com – Jakarta, Hari ini, 26 Desember 2019, akan terjadi fenomena alam Gerhana Matahari Cincin di Indonesia. Berikut segala hal yang patut kamu diketahui.

Apa itu Gerhana Matahari Cincin?

Secara umum Gerhana Matahari Cincin (GMC) hanya terjadi sekitar 1-2 tahun sekali. Terakhir kali GMC terjadi pada 26 Februari 2017. Dalam enam tahun ke depan GMC diprediksi terjadi pada 26 Desember 2019, 21 Juni 2020, 10 Juni 2021, 14 Oktober 2023, dan 2 Oktober 2024.

Dari semua tanggal itu, hanya 26 Desember 2019 yang dapat disaksikan seluruh masyarakat Indonesia. Fenomena ini tentunya menjadi fenomena yang langka bagi masyarakat Indonesia.

Gerhana Matahari umumnya terjadi ketika posisi bulan terletak di antara Bumi dan Matahari. Saat gerhana, piringan Matahari di langit akan tertutup oleh piringan Bulan sehingga cahaya Matahari akan terhalang sampai ke Bumi.

Gerhana Matahari Cincin terjadi jika Matahari tidak tertutup sepenuhnya oleh Bulan. Itu bisa terjadi karena Bulan berada di jarak terjauh dari Bumi. Sehingga bulan akan tampak lebih kecil dan tidak menutupi Matahari sepenuhnya.

Kerucut umbra tidak sampai ke permukaan Bumi dan akan terbentuk kerucut tambahan yang disebut antumbra. Orang-orang yang berada dalam wilayah antumbra akan melihat Matahari tampak seperti cincin di langit. Inilah yang disebut Gerhana Matahari Cincin.

Ada lima fase Gerhana Matahari Cincin, yaitu saat kontak awal, kontak kedua, puncak gerhana, kontak ketiga, dan kontak akhir gerhana.
Lokasi

Gerhana Matahari Cincin akan melintasi jalur sepanjang 142 kilometer yang membentang dari Timur Tengah ke Samudera Pasifik bagian barat.

Masyarakat di wilayah Arab Saudi, Bahrain, Qatar, Uni Emirat Arab, Oman, India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Singapura, Filipina, hingga Guam dapat menikmati fenomena astronomi tersebut.

Khusus di Indonesia, tidak semua wilayah bisa menikmati fenomena alam ini. Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi dan Geofisika (BMKG) merilis 25 kota/kabupaten di 7 provinsi yang disambangi gerhana matahari cincin beserta perkiraan waktu puncak gerhana. Berikut ini daftarnya:

  1. Aceh (Sinabang 11.55 WIB, Singkil 12.00 WIB)
  2. Sumatera Utara (Sibolga, Pandan, Tarutung 12.04 WIB; Padang Sidempuan, Sipirok 12.06 WIB; Gunung Tua 12.07 WIB, Sibuhuan 12.08 WIB)
  3. Riau (Pasir Pengaraian 12.10 WIB, Dumai 12.14 WIB, Bengkali dan Siak Sri Indrapura 12.16 WIB; Selat Panjang 12.19 WIB)
  4. Kepulauan Riau (Tanjung Pinang 12.26 WIB, Tanjung Balai Karimun 12.21 WIB, Batam 12.24 WIB, Bandar Seri Bentan 12.26 WIB)
  5. Kalimantan Barat (Mempawah dan Singkawang 12.42 WIB, Sambas 12.43 WIB, Bengkayang 12.42 WIB, Putussibau 12.55 WIB)
  6. Kalimantan Timur (Tanjungredep 13.10 WIB)
  7. Kalimantan Utara (Tanjungselor 13.10 WIB)

Durasi cincin terlama di Selat Panjang selama 3 menit 40 detik. Sedangkan durasi gerhana terlama di Bengkalis selama 3 jam 51 menit 24,7 detik.

Selain dari wilayah di atas, masyarakat dapat melihat Gerhana Matahari Parsial

  • Padang
    Gerhana 89,0572%
    P1 : 10.19 WIB
    Maks: 12.11 WIB
    P4 : 14.08 WIB
  • Jakarta
    Gerhana 72,08%
    P1 : 10.43 WIB
    Maks: 12.36 WIB
    P4 : 14.23 WIB
  • Surabaya
    Gerhana 66,40%
    P1 : 11.03 WIB
    Maks: 12.55 WIB
    P4 : 14.34 WIB
  • Makassar
    Gerhana 68,47%
    P1 : 12.45 WITA
    Maks: 14.14 WITA
    P4 : 15.45 WITA
  • Manado
    Gerhana 85,07%
    P1 : 12.42 WITA
    Maks: 14.29 WITA
    P4 : 15.56 WITA
  • Kupang
    Gerhana 46,82%
    P1 : 12.46 WITA
    Maks: 14.21 WITA
    P4 : 15.42 WITA
  • Ambon
    Gerhana 63,05%
    P1 : 13.56 WIT
    Maks: 15.33 WIT
    P4 : 15.54 WIT
  • Jayapura
    Gerhana 48,73%
    P1 : 14.32 WIT
    Maks: 15.51 WIT
    P4 : 16.58 WIT

Aman Lihat Gerhana

Gerhana Matahari Cincin pada dasarnya tidak bisa dilihat secara mata telanjang. Maka dari itu, diperlukan kacamata pelindung.

Saat sinar UV masuk ke mata, sinarnya akan difokuskan oleh lensa dan diserap oleh retina yang berada di belakang mata. Setelah diserap oleh retina, sinar UV menghasilkan radikal bebas yang mulai mengoksidasi jaringan di sekitar mata. Hasilnya, sel batang dan sel kerucut pada retina akan rusak.

Gerhana Matahari Cincin dan Segala Hal yang Patut DiketahuiFoto: Reuters

Kondisi inilah yang dinamakan dengan retinopati surya, yang akhirnya memicu kerusakan mata secara permanen. Maka dari itu sangat disarankan untuk menggunakan kacamata khusus saat melihat gerhana matahari cincin.

Kacamata pelindung untuk melihat gerhana matahari cincin pun tidak sembarangan. Kacamata itu baiknya menggunakan bahan sejenis kromium atau alumunium agar dapat melemahkan pancaran radiasi inframerah.

“Disarankan untuk melihat matahari yang aman itu gunakan peralatan yang memang bisa menyerap sinar matahari secara efisien, yaitu menggunakan kacamata matahari yang bisa menyerap sampai dengan 100 ribu kali atau filter ND5,” ujar Kepala LAPAN, Thomas Djamaluddin.
Belajar Sains

Lembaga Penerbangan dan Antariksa Nasional (LAPAN) mengajak masyarakat belajar sains saat Gerhana Matahari Cincin. Karena itu LAPAN menyelenggarakan berbagai kegiatan di lokasi strategis melihat fenomena alam ini, yaitu Kabupaten Siak, Kampung Bunsur, Riau dan Kota Singkawang, Kalimantan Barat.

“Kegiatan yang akan dilakukan antara lain pengamatan GMC dan edukasi keantariksaan. Untuk melakukan pengamatan LAPAN akan berkolaborasi dengan astronom, ilmuwan di bidang keantariksaan dan komunitas astronomi (dalam dan luar negeri). Pengamatan ini untuk melihat pengaruh fenomena gerhana matahari cincin ke Bumi,” tutur Kepala Bagian Humas LAPAN Jasyanto dalam siaran persnya.

Sedangkan untuk kegiatan edukasi keantariksaan, LAPAN akan menghadirkan mini planetarium, talkshow seputar fenomena gerhana matahari cincin, pameran hasil litbang LAPAN, pemutaran film sains dan sosialisasi ke beberapa sekolah dan perguruan tinggi.

Selain itu, LAPAN juga berkolaborasi dengan Ristekdikti untuk menghadirkan workshop teropong lubang jarum untuk 100 peserta serta pameran fotografi gerhana matahari dan camera obscura.

Untuk yang di Jakarta, Planet dan Observatorium pun memfasilitasinya. Acara digelar di Plaza Teater Jakarta, Pusat Kesenian Jakarta Taman Ismail Marzuki pada Kamis, 26 Desember 2019 mendatang. Pengamatan umum Gerhana Matahari Parsial itu digelar mulai pukul 07.00 WIB sampai dengan pukul 16.00 WIB.

Kegiatan pengamatan Gerhana Matahari Cincin juga dilangsungkan di Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, tepatnya di Pusat Peragaan IPTEK (PP-IPTEK). Acara dimulai pada pukul 10.30 – 14.30 WIB.

Bila tidak sempat melihat secara langsung, Bosscha Observatory menyiapkan sesi live streaming bagi warga yang ingin menyaksikan proses Gerhana Matahari Cincin. Live streaming dapat disaksikan lewat channel YouTube Bosscha Obeservatory mulai pada pukul 09.00 WIB.(***/detik)

Bagikan

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