Cara Hebat Korea Selatan dan Singapura Atasi Penyebaran Corona Tanpa Lockdown

Sekitarjambi.com – Jambi, Lebih dari tiga 3 atau sepertiga populasi manusia di seluruh dunia sedang berada dalam karantina wilayah. Beberapa negara menerapkan kebijakan itu untuk menekan laju penyebaran virus corona SARS-CoV-2 yang menyebabkan penyakit COVID-19.

Negara terakhir yang memutuskan mengambil langkah lockdown adalah India. Keputusan itu diambil setelah jumlah kasus infeksi COVID-19 di negara berpopulasi 1,3 miliar penduduk itu, meningkat menjadi 519 kasus. Namun, karantina wilayah bukan satu-satunya jalan. Korea Selatan dan Singapura berhasil melandaikan kurva penyebaran COVID-19 tanpa melakukan lockdown.
Menurut laporan The New York Times, Korea Selatan melakukan setidaknya empat langkah untuk melandaikan kurva penyebaran.

Pertama, pemerintah cepat mengintervensi sebelum terjadi lonjakan kasus. Kedua, mengadakan penapisan massal dengan cepat. Langkah ketiga, melacak sebaran kasus menggunakan perangkat teknologi dan segera mengisolasi pasien baru. Terakhir, pemerintah bersikap transparan memberikan informasi riwayat kontak dan perjalanan pasien terinfeksi virus corona ke publik.

Pemerintah Korea Selatan langsung menjalankan protokol antisipasi satu minggu setelah kasus positif corona pertama terkonfirmasi di negara mereka. Pemerintah meminta beberapa perusahaan kesehatan memproduksi test kit dalam waktu cepat.

Dalam waktu dua minggu, ribuan test kit virus corona sudah diproduksi. Pemerintah kemudian segera menggelar penapisan massal. Sejauh ini, Korea Selatan telah melakukan penapisan ke lebih dari 300 ribu warganya.
“Tes massal sangat penting sebagai cara deteksi dini. Itu adalah kunci dari keberhasilan kami menekan angka kematian dan penyebaran. Dengan cara itu, kami dapat meminimalkan penyebaran dan memberikan perawatan kesehatan secara cepat ke penderita corona,” kata Kang Kyung-wha, Menteri Luar Negeri Korea Selatan dilansir BBC.

Setelah penapisan massal dilakukan, Korea Selatan melakukan pelacakan untuk mengisolasi warga yang terinfeksi menggunakan perangkat teknologi. The Conversation melaporkan, pemerintah memakai sejumlah data untuk melacak pergerakan warga.

Pertama, data transaksi perbankan lewat kartu kredit dan debit. Kedua, data pergerakan lokasi yang berasal dari telepon seluler. Ketiga, data pergerakan warga yang diperoleh dari sekitar 8 juta kamera CCTV.

Kombinasi dari penggunaan tiga teknologi ini memungkinkan otoritas kesehatan Korea Selatan bekerja cepat melacak warga yang memiliki kontak dengan pasien positif COVID-19.

Ketika menemukan pasien baru, data pergerakan si pasien akan dibandingkan dengan data pasien lain yang sudah lebih dulu terinfeksi. Dengan cara itu, otoritas kesehatan dapat melacak dengan tepat di mana, kapan, dan siapa yang menulari pasien baru itu. Sebaliknya jika data pasien baru tidak sesuai dengan pasien lain, itu berarti ada penderita COVID-19 yang tidak terlacak atau tidak memiliki gejala.

Bila menemukan kasus seperti itu, otoritas kesehatan akan melacak riwayat kontak pasien baru itu menggunakan tiga teknologi yang disebutkan di atas. Riwayat kontak dan perjalanan penderita corona dilacak lewat data transaksi bank, telepon seluler, dan kamera CCTV. Selanjutnya, orang-orang yang diketahui berkontak dengan pasien akan menjalani penapisan dan isolasi.

Hasil pelacakan dipublikasikan ke publik lewat situs pemerintah, aplikasi telepon pintar, dan pesan singkat. Publik akan mendapat informasi detail tempat-tempat mana saja yang pernah dikunjungi pasien positif COVID-19.
Informasi itu akan terus diperbaharui dalam hitungan jam atau bahkan menit, selama terdapat kasus baru yang diidentifikasi. Dengan begitu, publik dapat menghindari atau melakukan langkah antisipasi bila berada di lokasi tersebut.

Warga yang punya riwayat kontak atau perjalanan yang sama dengan penderita COVID-19 wajib mengikuti penapisan. Setelah itu, dia wajib mengisolasi diri dan mengunduh aplikasi karantina pemerintah.
Aplikasi itu dapat melacak pergerakan warga yang diisolasi. Bila saat isolasi meninggalkan rumah, orang itu akan dikenakan denda hingga 2.500 dolar AS atau sekitar Rp 40 juta.

Sejauh ini jumlah kasus COVID-19 yang terkonfirmasi di Korea Selatan berjumlah 9.332 kasus. Dari jumlah itu, 139 di antaranya meninggal dan 4.528 telah sembuh. Tren kasus aktif virus corona di Korea Selatan terus menurun. Jika pada 11 Maret lalu jumlah kasus aktif mencapai 7.362, per tanggal 26 Maret, total kasus aktif turun menjadi 4.966.

Singapura

Selain Korea Selatan, Singapura juga dinilai sigap mengantisipasi penyebaran COVID-19. Segera usai wabah virus corona merebak pertama kali di Wuhan, pemerintah Singapura bergerak cepat. Mereka memperketat pengawasan di pintu masuk negara itu seperti bandara dan pelabuhan.
Pemerintah Singapura menginstruksikan peningkatan kapasitas laboratorium kesehatan dan mulai memproduksi test kit. The Financial Times, per 20 Maret lalu, Singapura telah melakukan 38.000 kali penapisan ke warganya.

“Kami segera mempersiapkan diri saat China mulai melakukan karantina wilayah. Ketika satu kasus terkonfirmasi, dalam waktu satu minggu kami sudah bisa melakukan tes massal di seluruh rumah sakit,” kata Dale Fisher, Profesor penyakit infeksi National University of Singapore seperti dikutip The Financial Times.
Setelah melakukan penapisan massal, pemerintah turut melacak riwayat kontak dan perjalanan pasien yang positif terinfeksi COVID-19. Upaya pelacakan itu melibatkan aparat kepolisian, otoritas kesehatan, dan teknologi surveilans.

Pemerintah Singapura juga telah meluncurkan aplikasi TraceTogether pada Maret ini. TraceTogether dapat melacak riwayat kontak pengguna dengan orang yang terinfeksi COVID-19. Aplikasi ini menggunakan teknologi Bluetooth dan efektif digunakan jika dipakai oleh banyak orang. Di Singapura, aplikasi ini telah diunduh setidaknya 620.000 orang.

Para pengguna aplikasi yang sedang berdekatan akan saling mengirimkan identitas anonim yang sudah terenkripsi ke dalam telepon pintar mereka. Hal itu dilakukan untuk merekam informasi waktu, durasi, hingga lokasi kontak sesama pengguna aplikasi.
Jika salah satu pengguna aplikasi positif terjangkit COVID-19, otoritas kesehatan akan mengambil data di aplikasi itu. Dengan cara itu mereka dapat melacak dengan siapa pun yang pernah berkontak dekat dengan pasien untuk diisolasi. Dengan begitu penyebaran virus dapat dikendalikan.

Lewat berbagai upaya pelacakan itu, pemerintah Singapura dapat menemukan 7.957 orang yang punya riwayat kontak dengan pasien positif corona. Semuanya diperintahkan mengkarantina diri.
Sampai saat ini jumlah kasus di Singapura mencapai 683 kasus, 172 di antaranya telah disembuhkan, dan jumlah korban meninggal sebanyak 2 pasien.

Selain itu untuk mencegah gelombang kedua pandemi corona, Pemerintah Singapura mewajibkan siapa pun yang datang ke negara itu untuk mengkarantina diri. Jika kedapatan melanggar, mereka terancam denda 6.900 dollar Singapura atau setara dengan Rp 77 juta dan atau hukuman penjara selama enam bulan. (Kumparan.com)

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